Medicina antroposófica: un sistema de medicina integradora que tiene su origen en Europa
Gunver S. Kienle, Dr med, Germany; Hans-Ulrich Albonico, Dr med, PhD, Switzerland; Erik Baars, Dr med, MSc, PhD, The Netherlands; Harald J. Hamre, Dr med, Germany, Norway; Peter Zimmermann, Dr med, PhD, Finland; Helmut Kiene, Dr med, Germany
Anthroposophic medicine is an inte¬grative multimodal treatment sys¬tem based on a holistic understand¬ing of man and nature and of disease and treatment. It builds on a concept of four levels of formative forces and on the model of a three-fold human constitution. Anthroposophic medi¬cine is integrated with conventional medicine in large hospitals and med¬ical practices. It applies medicines derived from plants, minerals, and animals; art therapy, eurythmy ther¬apy, and rhythmical massage; coun¬seling; psychotherapy; and specific nursing techniques such as external embrocation. Anthroposophic healthcare is provided by medical doctors, therapists, and nurses. A Health-Technology Assessment Report and its recent update identi¬fied 265 clinical studies on the effi¬cacy and effectiveness of anthropo¬sophic medicine. The outcomes were described as predominantly positive. These studies as well as a variety of specific safety studies found no major risk but good tolera¬bility. Economic analyses found a favorable cost structure. Patients report high satisfaction with anthro¬posophic healthcare.
La medicina antroposófica es un sistema de tratamiento multimodal integrador que se basa en un enten-dimiento holístico del hombre y la naturaleza, así como de la enferme¬dad y del tratamiento. Se desarrolla sobre un concepto de cuatro niveles de fuerzas formativas y sobre el modelo de una constitución huma¬na en tres partes. La medicina antro¬posófica se integra con la medicina convencional en grandes hospitales y en consultorios médicos. Aplica medicamentos de origen vegetal, mineral y animal; terapias artísti¬cas, euritmia curativa y masaje rít¬mico; orientación, psicoterapia y técnicas de enfermería específicas, tales como la frotación externa. La atención sanitaria antroposófica es realizada por médicos, terapeutas y personal de enfermería. En un informe de evaluación de la tec¬nología sanitaria y en su reciente actualización se identificaron 265 estudios clínicos sobre la eficacia y la efectividad de la medicina antro¬posófica. Los resultados se describi¬eron como predominantemente positivos. Estos estudios, así como diversos estudios de seguridad espe¬cíficos, no encontraron ningún ries¬go importante y sí una buena tolera¬bilidad. Los análisis económicos revelaron una estructura de costes favorable. Los pacientes indican una alta satisfacción con la aten¬ción sanitaria antroposófica.
Anthroposophic medicine is an integrative medical system, an extension of conventional medicine incorporating a holistic approach to man and nature and to illness and healing. It was founded in the early 1920s by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman. It is established in 80 countries worldwide, most significantly in Central Europe. It is practiced by physicians, therapists, and nurses and provides specific treatments and therapies including medica¬tion, art, movement, and massage therapies and spe¬cific nursing techniques. The entire range of all acute and chronic diseases is being treated, with a focus on children’s diseases, family medicine, and particularly chronic diseases necessitating long-time complex treatments. Patients are highly satisfied with this holistic form of healthcare.
ANTHROPOSOPHY AS A SPIRITUAL SCIENCE
Anthroposophic medicine is based on the cognitive methods and cognitive results of anthroposophy.1 Anthroposophy was established by Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925).2 After studying empirical sciences, mathematics, and philosophy in Vienna, Steiner was commissioned at the age of 22 to publish Johann Wolfgang Goethe’s scien¬tific writings in Kürschners Deutscher Nationalliteratur (German National Literature) and collaborated on the Sophie Edition of Goethe’s works in Weimar.3,4 Steiner began developing anthroposophy in 1901.5 Anthroposophy is a view on humanity and nature that is spiritual and that at the same time regards itself to be profoundly scientific.6 Steiner considered anthroposo¬phy a consequential evolutionary step in the develop¬ment of Western thought.7 In anthroposophy, three tra¬ditions are integrated and enhanced: the empirical tradi¬tion of modern science as started by Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo; the cognitional tradition of philosophy as initiated by Plato and Aristotle and as brought to a culmi¬nation in so-called German idealism by Hegel, Fichte, Schelling, Schiller and Goethe; and finally the esoteric tradition of Christian spirituality. The stability of this integration was reflected in Steiner’s critique and rejec¬tion of the philosophy of Kant8 and of materialistic reductionism.3 Kant had propagated the idea that there were definite limitations to scientific knowledge,9 and the materialistic reductionism movement had declared the interactions of material particles to be the basic prin¬ciple of all scientific explanation.10-12 In contrast, Steiner proposed and described how human beings could expand their cognitive capacities and how these expand¬ed capacities6 could be implied to investigate a variety of formative forces that are, beyond particle interactions, effective in organisms (Sidebar 1).13
The concept of a multilevel organism with diverse subsystems is compatible with modern system approach¬es in developmental biology and with holistic models of cancer.16-18 In anthroposophy, the concept of the forma¬tive forces is rather elaborate and is also accompanied by a corresponding concept of material matter. The physi¬cal structures of matter are considered only one level, and when a substance is absorbed into the context of an organism, the substance becomes “enlivened” or even “ensouled.”1 The investigation of the formative forces and their material correspondences and of the diverse interrelations among these forces provides the basis for the anthroposophic worldview. This view brings spiri¬tual dimensions to the natural sciences.6
Steiner provided anthroposophy with a deeply reflected epistemology.3-5,7,8,19-21 On the other hand, anthroposophy has proven to be not only a philosophy or a new orientation in science but also to be practically applicable. It induced a large variety of developments in different fields: a School of Spiritual Science with various specialized sections, founded in 1924 in Dornach, Switzerland; a new method of education (Waldorf schools, also known as Rudolf Steiner schools), currently with more than 1000 schools and approximately 2000 kindergartens, home programs, child care centers, and preschools worldwide; the curative education move-ment, which currently has more than 600 centers for curative education and social therapy worldwide for children, young people, and adults with disabilities and developmental problems; a new direction in agriculture, biodynamic farming; the creation of an art of movement, eurythmy; a renewal of various artistic practices such as recitation, dramatic art, painting, sculpture, and archi¬tecture; and attempts to reshape social life (three-fold social order22,23). One anthroposophic enterprise, Sekem, in Egypt,24 has been honored with the alternative Nobel Prize and with the Schwab Foundation Prize. Anthroposophic insights have been integrated into mod¬ern culture; numerous people in public life, commerce, banking, politics, culture, theatre and film, literature, the fine arts, music, fashion, and medicine have emerged from the anthroposophic scene.
Sidebar 1 Anthroposophic Concept of the Human Organism and Pathogenesis
The Four-level Concept of Formative Forces13
The anthroposophic concept of the human being claims that the human organism is not only formed by physical (cellular, molecular) forces but by a total of four levels of formative forces: (1) formative physical forces; (2) formative growth forces that interact with physical forces and bring about and maintain the living form, as in plants; (3) a further class of formative forces (anima, soul) that interact with the growth forces and physical forces, creating the duality of internal-external and the sensory, motor, nervous and circulatory systems as seen in animals; (4) an additional class of formative forces (Geist, spirit) that interacts with the three others and supports the expression of the individual mind and the capacity for reflective thinking, which is unique for humans.
The Three-fold Model of the Human Constitution14,15
When the four levels of formative forces are integrated with the human polarity of active motor movement and passive sensory perception, the three-fold constitution of the human being comes into being. It embraces three major systems: two being polar to each other (nerve-sense system and motor-metabolic system), and one being intermediate (rhythmic system). These subsystems are spread over the entire organism but predominate in certain regions: the nerve-sense system in the head region, the motor-metabolic system in the limb region, the rhythmic system in the respiratory and circulatory organs and thus in the “middle” region.
In these three subsystems, the four levels of formative forces are considered to interrelate differently. In the nerve-sense system, the upper two levels of forces (spirit, soul) are relatively separate from the lower two levels, thus providing the conditions for the origination of self-consciousness, conscious perceptions, and conscious thought processes. In the motor-metabolic system, the interpenetration is closer, thus providing the conditions for the execution of personally intended bodily movements. In the rhythmic system, the interrelations of the upper and lower levels fluctuate between increasing and decreasing connection and are associated with the origination of emotion; the interpenetration increases during the rhythmical lung process of inspiration and decreases during expiration.
The model of the three-fold human constitution leads to distinct re-interpretations of the conventional teachings of physiology.
BASIC PERSPECTIVES OF ANTHROPOSOPHIC MEDICINE
The etiologies and pathogeneses of diseases are con¬cretely understood as abnormal interactions among the different levels of the human organism and its three subsystems (Sidebar 1).25,26 Reflecting upon these inter¬actions is the basis for specific anthroposophic medical and treatment schedules. An example of such a diagnos¬tic and therapeutic procedure has recently been outlined in a case report on anxiety and eurythmy therapy.27
Another basic aspect comes from the following: Once the existence and effectiveness of formative forces are taken into account, another view on the evolution of humanity and nature emerges, with specific relation¬ships between the generating processes of the forms and substances in external nature and in the human body. Pathological deviations in the human organism can thus be seen in correspondence with formative processes and substances in nature. These correspondences are like those between keys and keyholes. Such or similar rela¬tions have been recognized in all cultures, even in human¬ity’s earliest times. Assessing these relationships can enable rational medicinal therapies.1
Guiding principles of anthroposophic healthcare are recognizing the autonomy and dignity of the patient and helping people to help themselves. Self-responsibility is addressed, and therapeutic goals are to stimulate different forms of self-healing—to stimulate hygiogenesis,28 which means to create a coherent autonomic regulation of the organism; and salutogenesis,29 which means to cre¬ate a coherent psycho-emotional and spiritual self-regula¬tion.30 The treatments do not merely intend to restore a former healthy condition, a “restitution ad integrum,” but to provoke a new level of the organism’s and the individ¬ual’s inner strength.13
Anthroposophic medicine thus pursues a holistic approach. Rather than focusing on a singular pathologi¬cal datum, the aim is to strengthen the whole constitu¬tion of the sick patient, taking into account all dimen¬sions: physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and social. Treatments therefore often are multimodal. They are individually tailored in an attempt to synergize the effects of the different therapeutic components and so to enhance the chances for health improvement. Such treat¬ment is conceived as a therapeutic system.31-33
Sidebar 2 Anthroposophic Hospitals, Hospital Departments, Rehabilitation Centers
- Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Havelhöhe, D-Berlin (Sidebar 3)
- Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke, D-Herdecke (Sidebar 3)
- Filderklinic, D-Filderstadt: Internal medicine, oncology, cardiology, gastroenterology, emergency and intensive care medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, pediatric medicine, pediatric psychiatry, neonatology, surgery, anesthesia, radiology, psychosomatic medicine
- Ita Wegman Klinik, CH-Arlesheim: Internal medicine (with oncology, cardiology, neurology, respiratory medicine, geriatrics), psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine
- Paracelsus-Spital, CH-Richterswil: Surgery, urology, internal medicine, oncology, gastroenterology, respiratory medicine, cardiology, gynecology and obstetrics, radiology, anesthesia, emergency department, palliative care
- Vidarkliniken, S-Järna: Rehabilitation (cancer, stress-related diseases, chronic pain), palliative care (cancer)
Specialty Hospitals and Departments
- Asklepios – West Hospital Hamburg, Center for Holistic Medicine, D-Hamburg: Internal medicine, psychosomatic medicine
- Lahnhöhe Hospital, D-Lahnstein: Psychosomatic medicine
- Öschelbronn Hospital, D-Öschelbronn: Internal medicine, oncology
- Paracelsus Hospital, D-Bad Liebenzell-Unterlengenhardt: Internal medicine
- Klinikum (Hospital) Heidenheim, D-Heidenheim: General medicine
- Friedrich-Husemann-Klinik, D-Buchenbach: Psychiatry
- Lukas Clinic, CH-Arlesheim: Integrative tumor therapy and supportive care
- Hospital Emmental – Department of Complementary Medicine, CH-Langnau i.E.: General, oncology, palliative, and psychosomatic medicine.
- Hospital Scuol – Department of Complementary Medicine, CH-Scuol: General, oncology, palliative and psychosomatic medicine, perioperative care
- Lievegoed Klinik, NL-Bilthoven: Psychiatry
Rehabilitation and Other Inpatient Healthcare Centers
- Alexander von Humboldt Klinik, D-Bad Steben: Geriatric rehabilitation center
- Sanatorium Sonneneck, D-Badenweiler
- Reha-Klinik Schloss Hamborn, D-Borchen über Paderborn
- Haus am Stalten, D-Steinen
- Höfe am Belchen, D-Kleines Wiesental – Neuenweg: Therapeutic Community for Children and Young Persons’ Psychiatry
- Heilstätte Sieben Zwerge, D-Salem-Oberstenweiler: Drug-related diseases,
- Mutter und Kind Kurheim Alpenhof, D-Rettenberg
- Casa di Cura Andrea Cristoforo, CH-Ascona
- Casa die Salute Rapael, I-Roncegno (Trento)
- Rudolf Steiner Health Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States: Therapy and training center for chronic illnesses
Abbreviations: CH, Switzerland (Confoederatio Helvetica); D, Germany (Deutschland); I: Italy; NL, Netherlands; S, Sweden.
PRACTICE AND FACILITIES OF ANTHROPOSOPHIC MEDICINE
Anthroposophic medicine is practiced in both inpatient and outpatient settings by trained medical doctors. Currently there are approximately 24 anthro¬posophic medical institutions, which include hospitals, departments in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other inpatient healthcare centers in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Italy, The Netherlands, and the United States (Sidebars 2 and 3 and Figure 1). In Germany, three large anthroposophic hospitals provide accident and emergency services within the require¬ment plans of the German Federal States (Bundesländer); two of them are academic teaching hospitals linked to neighboring universities (Sidebar 3). They provide spe¬cialty training for physicians. In 1983, the first private, nonstate university in Germany was founded out of one of these hospitals (University of Witten/Herdecke). In addition to the anthroposophic hospitals, there are more than 180 anthroposophic outpatient clinics world¬wide in which anthroposophic physicians and thera¬pists work together. Anthroposophic physicians also work in their own practices. Additionally, a variety of outpatient departments at large hospitals provide anthroposophic healthcare and consultation service (eg, Center for Integrative Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, Switzerland; Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland; Center for Complementary Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany). Practitioners of anthroposophic medicine were decisively involved in the implementation of the liberal and pluralistic healthcare in Germany and in the relevant formulation of the German Medicines Act in 1976. Since 1976, anthroposophic medicine in Germany has been defined, alongside homeopathy and phyto¬therapy, as a distinct “special therapy system” (besondere Therapierichtung) in the Medicines Act34 and is repre¬sented in Germany by its own committee at the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. Also, Switzerland and Latvia have recognized anthroposoph¬ic medicine as a distinct therapy system. In some coun¬tries, legal recognition is restricted to pharmaceutical regulation. The authorization, registration, and supervi¬sion of the profession of anthroposophic doctors are delegated to national medical associations.
Sidebar 3 Examples of Integrated Healthcare in Two Anthroposophic Hospitals ()
Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke, a tertiary care center and academic teaching hospital founded in 1969, is responsible for providing acute inpatient services for the town of Herdecke and its immediate and more distant surrounding areas, including emergency medical services (level II and level III care). Anthroposophic medical care—medication, nursing care, physiotherapy, therapeutic baths, rhythmical massage, therapeutic riding, ergotherapy, speech therapy, psychotherapy, eurythmy therapy, art therapies (using music, painting, sculpture, speech therapy)—is integrated into the following specialty departments:
- Anesthesia, including pain therapy.
- Surgery: general, abdominal, trauma surgery including endoprosthesis, plastic, vascular and thoracic, oncological surgery, minor pediatric surgical procedures.
- Gynecology and obstetrics: approximately 900 births/year.
- Interdisciplinary early rehabilitation.
- Internal medicine: cardiology, gastroenterology, respiratory medicine, psychosomatic medicine.
- Interdisciplinary oncology: ward, day clinic, outpatient department, patient counseling, psychooncology.
- Pediatrics: pediatric diabetes and endocrinology, diabetes training, therapy center; neuropediatrics with a special focus on epilepsy with digital electroencephalogram (EEG), EEG monitoring, video EEG; developmental retardation services; pediatric oncology and hematology, collaboration with the Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology; neonatology, pediatric intensive care medicine; pediatric and adolescent psychiatry, day hospital and secure ward with compulsory care, psychotraumatology (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, attention deficit/hyper-activity disorder, family therapy, psychosomatic medicine.
- Neurology, including a department for spinal cord injuries, stroke, paraplegia.
- Emergency admission/intensive care medicine/intermediate care unit.
- Adult psychiatry: acute and intensive care ward, secure ward with compulsory care, day hospital.
- Radiology: x-ray, ultrasound, computer tomography, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging.
Various departments provide outpatient consultations and treatment.
Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Havelhöhe, taken over in 1995 and reorganized as a hospital for anthroposophic medicine, is an acute hospital with 304 beds providing acute inpatient services for the surrounding area.
Anthroposophic medical care—including medication, nursing care, eurythmy therapy, art therapies (using music, painting, sculpting), rhythmical massage, massage using the Dr Pressel method, psychotherapy, physiotherapy, exercises, and manual lymph drainage—is integrated into the following specialty departments, with further interdisciplinary competence centers and interdisciplinary cooperation in the treatment of tumors:
- Internal medicine: General, oncology, diabetes (with a diabetes education center, type I and II), gastroenterology,(endoscopy: gastroscopy, colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, ballon-enteroscopy, endosonography, all interventional therapeutic procedures—such as polypectomy, mucosectomy, sclerotherapy, banding, stenting, ultrasound-guided drainage, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, pH determination in esophagus and stomach, manometry, multipolare radiofrequency—cardiology (invasive and noninvasive investigations including cardiac catheter laboratory, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, stent implantation, pacemakers, Havelhöhe Heart School).
- Palliative ward and pain ward including port insertion, feeding catheters, stents, epidural catheters, pumps, neurolytic blocks.
- Respiratory medicine, including whole body plethysmography, sleep apnea investigations, flexible video-bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound, filling of pneumonectomy cavities, allergen provocation and challenge testing and hyposensitization, determining the indications for long-term and domestic oxygen therapy).
- Surgery: general and oncological, visceral, hand, orthopedics, trauma, center for minimally invasive surgery including natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, vascular surgery, colorectal cancer center, outpatient and inpatient operations.
- Gynecology and obstetrics (approximately 1200 births/year).
- Breast center.
- Drug withdrawal therapy (multiple drug users, heroin, alcohol).
- Psychotherapeutic medicine, psychosomatic medicine.
- Developmental pediatrics.
- Anesthesia, including pain therapy.
- Interdisciplinary intensive care ward, including hemodialysis.
- Radiology, myelography, angiography, and computed tomography, nuclear medicine (single-photon emission computed tomography camera, myocardial scintigraphy, brain perfusion scintigraphy).
- Various departments provide outpatient consultations. Fifty percent of the patients are from outside the region, which is regarded as a manifestation of high acceptance by patients. Havelhöhe Hospital is an academic teaching hospital of the Charité.
Anthroposophic medicine is practiced by physi¬cians with specialized training in anthroposophic as well as conventional medicine, and anthroposophic therapies are also prescribed by many other physicians with varying levels of training. Anthroposophic physi¬cians often work in primary care, but anthroposophic medicine is not limited to general practice. It also is prac¬ticed in more specialized realms (Figure 2; Sidebar 3).
The certification requirements to become an anthroposophic physician are defined and regulated on national levels, which share similar curriculum. In Germany, for instance, the curricula requires 3 years of postgraduate medical practice, 1 year’s study of anthro¬posophic medicine according to a predefined program, and 2 years of medical practice under the guidance of a mentor. In addition, specific training courses are avail¬able in certain specialties. A further International Postgraduate Medical Training (IPMT) in anthropo¬sophical medicine consists of a series of yearly week¬long training and enables registered medical doctors to acquire a certificate of anthroposophic doctor after 3 years. Full curriculum training is available in several countries including Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, The Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the United States. Several professorships for anthroposophic medi¬cine exist, and postgraduate training is offered at a vari¬ety of universities/medical schools.
Guidelines for good professional practice set stan¬dards for anthroposophic physicians regarding ethical principles, training, certification, continuous medical edu¬cation, professional conduct, relationship with colleagues and therapists, and social commitments. Internationally, anthroposophic physicians are represented by the International Federation of Anthroposophical Medical Associations (IVAA), which functions as an umbrella organization with regard to political and legal affairs.
Anthroposophic medicine employs, in addition to conventional treatments, special medications and spe¬cial therapeutic procedures, including eurythmy thera¬py, rhythmical massage, anthroposophic art therapy, and counseling. In addition, there are special anthropo¬sophic nursing techniques. The therapies can be used as monotherapy or combined with other anthropo¬sophic therapies.
Plant, mineral, and animal substances are used in anthroposophic medications. Anthroposophic medica¬tions are conceived, developed, and produced in accor¬dance with the anthroposophic knowledge of the human being, nature, and substance and are sometimes potentized. The method of production is specified in the German homeopathic pharmacopoeia, in the Swiss Pharmacopoeia, and in the Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Codex and follows good manufacturing practice. The medications are administered orally, rectally, vaginally, parenterally (intracutaneously, subcutaneously, or intravenously), or topically (applied to the skin, con¬junctival sac, or nasal cavity). Several pharmaceutical companies produce anthroposophic medicines (eg, Weleda, Arlesheim, Switzerland; Wala Heilmittel, Eckwälden, Germany; Abnoba Heilmittel, Pforzheim, Germany). In anthroposophic medical practice, homeo¬pathic and herbal medicine preparations are also used, in addition to conventional pharmaceuticals if appro¬priate. The nonprofit, independent European Scientific Cooperative on Anthroposophic Medicinal Products (ESCAMP) investigates issues of system evaluation of anthroposophic medicine for regulatory purposes.
External applications—such as embrocation, com¬presses (Figure 3), hydrotherapy, and medicinal baths—are used as elements of nursing care and therapy to stimulate, strengthen, or regulate hygiogenic processes. For this purpose, etheric or fatty oils, essences, tinc¬tures, and ointments are used, as well as carbon dioxide in baths. Of particular importance is rhythmical mas¬sage (described below).
In nursing care, the intention is to become acquainted with the whole patient and perceive the patient in his or her physical, psychological, and spiri¬tual being. A caring bond is developed, which aims at developing a personal, accompanying, and mediating relationship with the patient. In affiliation with two anthroposophic hospitals (Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke and Filderklinik, Filderstadt; Sidebar 2) state-recognized training institutes provide 3-year courses in anthroposophically extended nursing. In addition, sev¬eral institutions provide further training opportunities.
Anthroposophic art therapy was developed main¬ly by Margarethe Hauschka,35 who also founded the first training institution for this form of therapy in 1962.36 Anthroposophic art therapy employs the fol¬lowing techniques:
• Sculptural forming: Stone, soapstone, wood, clay, beeswax, plasticine, and sand are all used as sculpting materials.
• Therapeutic drawing and painting: The materials used include paints and brushes, chalk, crayons, and paper.
• Music therapy: Instruments used include percus¬sion instruments such as the glockenspiel, xylo¬phone, cymbals, resonant wooden blocks, drums and kettledrums; various wind instruments such as flute, crumhorn, shawm, trumpet, and alpen¬horn; string instruments such as the chrotta (a simplified cello), violin, viola, and double-bass; and plucked instruments such as the harp, lyre and kantele. Melodies, sounds, and rhythms are improvised with the therapist or simply listened to. The choice of instrument depends on the indi¬vidual circumstances of the patient, according to the severity and stage of the illness.
• Anthroposophic speech therapy: This involves using articulation, consonants, vowels, text rhythms, and hexameters. Breathing plays a particular role in speaking (speech is formed exhalation). The indica¬tions for anthroposophic speech therapy are not only disorders of the voice but also general medical diseases, psychosomatic and psychiatric diseases, and learning and developmental difficulties.
Art therapy is provided as individual therapy, as individual therapy in small groups, or as group therapy. The patients learn to work specifically with the particu¬lar medium (such as painting or sculpture). Before the first treatment, there is a special session for obtaining an art-therapeutic anamnesis and diagnosis. Each suc¬ceeding therapy session usually lasts for 50 minutes and takes place once a week. Qualification as an anthro¬posophic art therapist requires 4 years’ college training and a 2-year period of professional experience under a mentor. In Germany and The Netherlands, master of arts degrees are possible.
Eurythmy therapy (In Greek, eurythmy means “har¬monious rhythm”; Figure 4) is an exercise therapy involving cognitive, emotional, and volitional elements. It is provided by eurythmy therapists in individual or small group sessions during which patients are instruct¬ed to perform specific movements with the hands, the feet, or the whole body. Eurythmy therapy movements are related to the sounds of the vowels and consonants, to music intervals, or to soul gestures (eg sympathy-antipathy). For each patient, one movement is or several movements are selected depending on the patient’s dis-ease, his constitution, and on the therapist’s observation of the patient’s movement pattern.27 This selection is based on a core set of principles, prescribing specific movements for specific diseases, constitutional types, and movement patterns.37,38 A therapy cycle usually consists of 12 to 15 sessions, each usually lasting 30 to 45 minutes; between sessions, patients practice the exercises daily. Qualification as an eurythmy therapist requires 5 and a half years of training according to an international standardized curriculum. Eurythmy ther¬apy is believed to have both general effects (eg, improv¬ing breathing patterns and posture, strengthening mus¬cle tone, enhancing physical vitality39) and disease-specific effects.38
Rhythmical massage was developed from Swedish massage by Wegman, who was a physician and physio¬therapist. Traditional massage techniques are augment¬ed by lifting movements, rhythmically undulating or gliding movements, and complex movement patterns such as lemniscates and by using special loosening techniques from the deeper areas out to the periphery. In addition to effects on the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles, rhythmical massage is believed to have both general effects (eg, enhancing physical vitality) and disease-specific effects. Rhythmical massage is practiced by physiotherapists with additional 1.5 to 3 years of rhythmical massage training according to a standardized curriculum.
Anthroposophic Psychotherapy and Counseling
Psychotherapy has been extended by anthropo¬sophic perspectives to anthroposophic psychotherapy. Full training is available in different countries, and a master’s/bachelor’s degree in anthroposophic psycho¬therapy is available in Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Counseling on bio¬graphical-existential, lifestyle, nutritional, social, men¬tal, and spiritual issues is a central element of anthropo¬sophic medical care.
RESEARCH ON ANTHROPOSOPHIC MEDICINE
Since its development in the 1920s and early 1930s, anthroposophic medicine has been associated with extensive research activities. After World War II, when anthroposophic medicine was re-established in Europe, the focus was on founding practices, clinics, and hospitals rather than on research. In the 1970s and 1980s, research was again performed but also restrained by the predominant paradigm of the double-blind ran¬domized trial, which is difficult to implement for non-pharmacological treatments, counseling, and whole system treatment. Randomization and blinding often have been rejected by anthroposophic physicians and their patients due to strong therapy preferences and the focus on the physician-patient relationship and highly individualized treatment approaches.40,41 During the past 30 years, research activities have grown steadily, including laboratory work, preclinical studies, clinical trials and observational studies, epidemiological research, safety assessments, economic analyses, patient’s perspective assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and Health-Technology Assessment (HTA) reports. Intense work has been done on method¬ological issues, with a major focus on individualized therapy assessment, including systematic improve¬ments of case report assessments.13 Research centers were set up at anthroposophic hospitals and universi¬ties. At present, research is particularly focused on the evaluation of the total system of anthroposophic medi¬cine and, on the other hand, on individualized, person¬alized therapeutic approaches.
Clinical Efficacy and Effectiveness
The most comprehensive review of clinical effica¬cy and effectiveness of anthroposophic treatments—an HTA report and its update13,42—identified 265 studies. Thirty-eight of these studies were randomized con¬trolled trials, 36 were prospective studies, and 49 were retrospective nonrandomized controlled studies. The remaining 142 studies were observational, without a comparison group.
The studies investigated a wide spectrum of anthro¬posophic treatments in a multitude of diseases: 38 eval¬uated the whole system of anthroposophic healthcare, 10 examined nonpharmacological therapies, 133 were devoted to anthroposophic mistletoe extracts in cancer, and 84 to other anthroposophic medication treatments. Methodological quality differed substantially; some studies showed major limitations and hardly allow valid conclusions regarding efficacy/effectiveness, while others were reasonably well-conducted.
Two-hundred fifty-three of the 265 studies (includ¬ing 32 of the 38 randomized trials) described a positive outcome for anthroposophic treatments—meaning a comparable or a better result than with conventional treatment or a clinically relevant improvement of the condition, often in chronic disease and after unsuccessful conventional treatments. Twelve studies found no bene¬fit, one of them with a negative trend. In one of these 12 studies,43 the standard treatment in the comparison group—intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in superficial bladder cancer—was superior.
Mistletoe in Cancer. Mistletoe treatment for can¬cer originated within anthroposophic medicine. It is one of the most commonly prescribed complementary cancer therapies in Central Europe44,45 and has been investigated intensely.46,47 Mistletoe (Viscum album L, not to be confused with Phoradendron, the American mistletoe) is a shrub that grows on different host trees. Extracts are made from specific parts of the plant (eg, fresh leafy shoots and berries). Anthroposophic mistle¬toe preparations (Abnobaviscum, Helixor, Iscador [labeled as “Iscar” in the United States], and Iscucin) are available from different host trees such as oak, apple, and pine. The harvesting procedure is standardized, and the juices from both summer and winter harvests are mixed together.
Mistletoe extract (ME) contains a variety of bio¬logically active compounds,46,47 such as lectins, visco¬toxins, other low molecular weight proteins, VisalbCBA (Viscum album chitin-binding agglutinin), oligo- and polysaccharides, flavonoids,48 vesicles,49 triterpene acids,50 and others. ME and several of its compounds are cytotoxic, and the lectins in particular have strong apoptosis-inducing effects.51-53 They also have an effect on multidrug-resistant cancer cells54 and enhance the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs.55,56 In mononuclear cells, ME possesses DNA-stabilizing properties. ME and its compounds stimulate the immune system (in vivo and in vitro activation of monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, T-cells, dendritic cells) and induce a variety of cytokines.46,47 The cytotoxicity of killer cells can also be markedly enhanced by a bridg¬ing effect through rhamnogalacturonans.57,58 Injected into tumor-bearing animals, ME and several of its com-pounds inhibit and reduce tumor growth.46,47 ME also enhances endorphins in vivo.46,47
Clinical studies on mistletoe in cancer describe rather consistently positive effects on quality of life: improved coping, sleep, appetite, energy, ability to work, and emotional and functional well-being, as well as reduced fatigue, exhaustion, nausea, vomiting, depression, and anxiety. Less consistently, the studies describe reduced pain and diarrhea.59 Regarding sur¬vival, study results were inconclusive until recent¬ly,60,61 and best evidence had rested mainly on epide¬miological studies. A well conducted, large, random¬ized controlled trial has just been concluded; it investi¬gated mistletoe therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who were not eligible for chemo¬therapy. The first interim analysis with 220 patients found a statistically significant benefit for survival (primary outcome parameter), with a median survival of 4.8 months in mistletoe-treated patients vs 2.7 months in control patients. Also, quality of life mea¬sured as a secondary outcome was superior regarding the functional scales and the symptoms of fatigue, sleep, pain, nausea, vomiting, and appetite. As expect-ed, body weight decreased in control patients but increased in mistletoe-treated patients.62
Tumor remissions are rare in the common low-dose subcutaneous mistletoe therapy.60,61,63 However, they have repeatedly been described following local and high-dose applications of mistletoe extracts, eg, in liver cancer,64 pancreatic cancer,65 Merkel cell carcinoma,66 breast cancer,66 primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma,67 cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma,68 and others.46,61 Local inflammatory response and fever often are observed at the beginning of treatment, and the tumor then regresses during the next couple of months.
Frequent side effects are dose-dependent local skin reactions and flu-like symptoms. Allergic reactions have been reported. Overall, mistletoe treatment is con¬sidered to be safe.13,46,69
System Evaluations. The largest clinical studies on anthroposophic medicine were two system evalua¬tions, together consisting of more than 2700 patients. The Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS) is an observational cohort study of German outpatients treated for mental, musculoskeletal, respi¬ratory, and other chronic conditions.70 One hundred fifty-one qualified anthroposophic physicians, 275 therapists, and 1631 patients aged 1 to 75 years partici¬pated. At study entry, patients had been ill for 3 years (median) or 6.5 years (mean). Following anthroposoph¬ic treatment (art therapy, rhythmical massage, euryth¬my therapy, physician-provided counseling, anthropo¬sophic medications), substantial and sustained improvements of disease symptoms and quality of life were observed. The improvements were found in adults70 and children71 in all therapy modality groups72-76 and in all evaluable diagnosis groups (anxi¬ety disorders, asthma, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, low back pain, migraine77-83), and the effects were retained after 4 years. The improve¬ments in quality of life were at least of the same order of magnitude as improvements following other (non-anthroposophic) treatments.84 In sensitivity analyses (combined bias suppression), maximally 37% of the improvement could be explained by natural recovery, regression to the mean, adjunctive therapies, and non¬response bias.85 In a nested prospective nonrandom¬ized comparative study, AMOS patients with low back pain had comparable or significantly more improve¬ments than patients receiving conventional care.81
The International Integrative Primary Care Outcomes Study on anthroposophic medicine was con¬ducted in four European countries and the United States and compared primary care patients who were treated by anthroposophic or conventional physicians for acute respiratory and ear infections. Compared to conven¬tional therapy, anthroposophic treatment was associat¬ed with much lower use of antibiotics and antipyretics as well as quicker recovery, fewer adverse reactions, and greater therapy satisfaction. These differences remained after adjustment for country, age, gender, and four markers of baseline severity. Only 3% of the anthropo¬sophic patients would have agreed to randomization.40
A complex project on anthroposophic healthcare in advanced cancer funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation demonstrated the difficulties of recruiting patients for randomized system comparison even in a university hospital patient population. Although anthroposophic medicine was well integrat¬ed into the University Hospital setting and patient compliance with anthroposophic therapy was good, the randomized controlled trial component of the proj¬ect ultimately had to be abandoned. Still, in the obser¬vational part of the study, anthroposophic treatment showed an improvement in physical, psychic, cogni¬tive-spiritual, and social dimensions of quality of life and was perceived by patients as having beneficial effects on physical recovery and well-being, emotional and cognitive-spiritual quality of life, and the quality of human relations and care, while conventional therapy was perceived as beneficial mainly through effects on tumors with alleviation of symptoms and pain.86-89
A system comparison of anthroposophic and con¬ventional healthcare in cancer patients was performed at the University of Uppsala in Sweden. Randomization could not be financed with public funds; therefore, a prospective matched-pair design was implemented. Prior to treatment, quality of life was more compro¬mised in the anthroposophic patients. During and after the anthroposophic treatment, the quality of life improved, whereas the control group treated with con¬ventional medicine showed no change.90,91
Another observational study investigated patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic conditions receiving anthroposophic healthcare over a 12-month period. They achieved a relevant reduction in the local and systemic inflammatory activity, relief of disease symptoms, and an improvement in functional capacity including the psychosocial dimension. Patient satisfac¬tion was high and conventional therapy could largely be avoided or reduced.92 This study gave rise to a large comparative effectiveness study, comparing anthropo¬sophic with conventional healthcare for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; it has concluded but has not yet been published.
Another study investigated chronic facial pain (mostly trigeminal neuralgia, present for more than 10 years in half of patients) that had been conventionally treated to no avail. Anthroposophic treatment was fol¬lowed by clinical improvement (one-fifth of patients became pain-free and almost two-thirds experienced a clear improvement), and conventional therapeutic agents were reduced.93 A retrospective study showed a favorable cure rate of anorexia nervosa following inpa-tient anthroposophic therapy.94
Clinical Studies on Single or a Fixed Set of Interventions. A variety of studies has investigated monotherapies or fixed combination therapies, for instance mistletoe treatment in cancer (see above) and in hepatitis,95-97 betulin-based oleogel in actinic kerato¬sis,98,99 rhythmic embrocation (with Solum oil) in chronic pain,100 hepar magnesium in seasonal fatigue symptoms,101 arnica/echinacea in care of umbilical cords of newborns,102,103 eurythmy therapy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder104, body-temperature ene¬mas in febrile children,105 mistletoe combined with Articulatio coxae or genus D30 in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee,106 Gelsemium comp. in acute occipital muscular pain,107 and many others. Most studies, except one on migraine,108 one on postoperative wound care,109 and one on actinic keratosis,99 showed positive results. Four recent new randomized controlled trials—on Disci/Rhus toxicodendron comp. in chronic low back pain,110 on Articulatio genus D5 in ostheoarthritis of the knee,111 on calendula cream in skin care during radiation,112 and on Ovaria comp. in menopausal symptoms113—found no benefit compared to placebo treatment.
Patient’s Perspective. Patient satisfaction was gen¬erally high, and therapeutic expectations were ful¬filled.13,42,114 For instance, in a recently completed Dutch survey (Consumer Quality Index, a national standard to measure healthcare quality from the perspective of health¬care users), 2.099 patients reported very high satisfaction with anthroposophic primary care practices (8.4 and 8.3 on a scale of 0 to 10, 10 being the best possible score).115
A variety of investigations specifically assessed the safety of anthroposophic treatments.13,69,72-74,116-119 In general, the tolerability is good. Adverse reactions are infrequent and mostly mild to moderate in severity. Three types of adverse reactions to anthroposophic medi¬cations are commonly described: local reactions from topical application, systemic hypersensitivity including very rare cases of anaphylactic reactions, and aggravation of preexisting symptoms in sensitive patients. In a detailed safety analysis from the AMOS study, the inci¬dence of confirmed adverse reactions to anthroposophic medications was 3% of users and 2% of the medications used116; adverse reactions in eurythmy therapy, art thera¬py, and rhythmical massage were reported in 3%, 1%, and 5% of the patients, respectively72-74; and no serious adverse reactions were found.116 Theoretically, avoidance of necessary conventional treatment in anthroposophic healthcare settings might pose a risk, but no evidence has been found for this.13,42 Comparative studies found simi¬lar81 or lower40,114,120 rates of side effects in anthropo¬sophic than in conventional healthcare.
Several economic analyses assessed costs of anthro¬posophic medicine. They point to a favorable cost structure and found cost savings partly due to lower drug costs, fewer specialist referrals, and fewer hospital days and admissions. This cannot be explained by a reduced disease burden—on the contrary, in most stud¬ies, anthroposophically treated patients are more severely affected or have been ill for a longer period before starting therapy.13,121-125
Case report methodology has been developed to provide validated and transparent information from the point of care with special focus on individualized healthcare.126-130 Case reports describe the specific anthroposophic treatment approach in detail (eg, see references 27, 67, 68, 131, and 132). Methods for system¬atic and critical appraisal still have to be worked out.
Anthroposophic medicine is an example of a mul¬timodal treatment system—based on a holistic para¬digm of the organism, disease, and treatment—that can be fully integrated with conventional medicine in medical practices and hospitals. Great emphasis is put on individualized healthcare. Assessing this healthcare system, an integrative evaluation strategy has been applied, including system approaches as well as studies in isolated treatment components with regard to effi¬cacy, effectiveness, safety, and costs, as well as qualita¬tive methods and high-quality case reports on individu¬al treatment.
1.Kienle G: Anthroposophische Medizin. In Seidler E, editor. Wörterbuch med¬izinischer Grundbegriffe. Freiburg, Basel, Wien, Germany: Herder Verlag; 1979: 33-9.
2.Lindenberg C. Rudolf Steiner—a biography. Great Barrington, MA: SteinerBooks; 2012.
3.Steiner R. Goethe’s theory of knowledge: an outline of the epistemology of his worldview (1886). Great Barrington, MA: SteinerBooks; 2008.
4.Steiner R. Goethe’s conception of the world (1897). London: The Anthroposophical Publishing Company; 1928.
5.Steiner R. The story of my life. London: The Anthroposophical Publishing Company; 1928.
6.Steiner R. An outline of esoteric science (1910). Great Barrington, MA: Anthroposophic Press; 1997.
7.Steiner R. The riddles of philosophy (1900/1901). Great Barrington, MA: SteinerBooks; 2009.
8.Steiner R. Truth and knowledge (1892). Great Barrington, MA: Steiner Books; 1981.
9.Kant I. Critique of pure reason (1781). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications; 2003.
10.du Bois-Reymond E. Jugendbriefe an Eduard Hallmann. Berlin: Reimer Verlag; 1918.
11.von Helmholtz H. Über die Erhaltung der Kraft. Leipzig, Germany: Engelmann Ver-lag; 1915.
12.Virchow R. Über das Bedürfnis und die Richtigkeit einer Medizin vom mech¬anischen Standpunkt. Arch Path Anat. 1907;7:188.
13.Kienle GS, Kiene H, Albonico HU. Anthroposophic medicine: effectiveness, utility, costs, safety. Stuttgart, NY: Schattauer Verlag; 2006.
14.Vogel L. Der dreigliedrige Mensch. Dornach: Verlag am Goetheanum; 2005.
15.Steiner R. Wesensglieder und Dreigliederung. In: Anthroposophische Leitsätze (32-34). Dornach 1925. Der Merkurstab. 2007;(4):381.
16.Kienle GS, Kiene H. “Beyond reductionism”—zur Notwendigkeit komplexer, organ-ismischer Ansätze in der Tumorimmunologie und Onkologie; in Kienle GS, Kiene H, editors. Die Mistel in der Onkologie. Stuttgart, NY: Schattauer Verlag; 2003: 333-432.
17.Kienle G, Kiene H. From reductionism to holism: systems-oriented approaches in cancer research. Global Adv Health Med. 2012;1(5):68-77.
18.Rosslenbroich B. Outline of a concept for organismic systems biology. Sem Cancer Biol. 2011;21(3):156-164.
19.Steiner R. Philosophy and anthroposophy (1904-1918). Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, LLC; 2005.
20.Steiner R. Monism and the philosophy of spiritual activity. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing; 2010.
21.Steiner R. The philosophy of freedom: the basis for a modern world concep¬tion (1894). Forrest Row, UK: Rudolf Steiner Press; 2006.
22.Steiner R. Der Kernpunkte der Sozialen Frage in den Lebensnotwendigkeiten der Gegenwart und Zukunft. (1919). Dornach, Switzerland: Rudolf Steiner Verlag; 1976.
23.Steiner R. Aufsätze über die Dreigliederung des sozialen Organismus und zur Zeitlage 1915-1921. Dornach, Switzerland: Rudolf Steiner Verlag; 1982.
24.Abouleish I. Sekem: A sustainable community in the Egyptian Desert. Edinburgh, Scotland: Floris Books; 2005.
25.Steiner R. Spiritual science and medicine (1920). Forrest Row, UK: Rudolf Steiner Press; 1989.
26.Steiner R, Wegman I. Fundamentals of therapy (1925). Forrest Row, UK: Rudolf Steiner Press; 1967.
27.Schwab JH, Murphy JB, Andersson P, et al. Eurythmy therapy in anxiety—a case report. Altern Ther Health Med. 2011;17(4):58-65.
28.Heusser PH. Akademische Forschung in der Anthroposophischen Medizin. Beispiel Hygiogenese: Natur- und geisteswissenschaftliche Zugänge zur Selbstheilungskraft des Menschen. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang AG; 1999.
29.Antonovsky A. Salutogenese. Tübingen, Germany: Dgvt Verlag; 1997.
30.Gutenbrunner C, Hildebrandt G, Moog R, et al. Chronobiology and Chronomedicine: Basic Research and Applications. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Chronobiology, Marburg 1991. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin: Peter Lang; 1991.
31.Girke M. Innere Medizin. Grundlagen und therapeutische Konzepte der Anthroposophischen Medizin. Berlin: Salumed-Verlag GmbH; 2010.
32.Soldner G, Stellmann HM. Individuelle Pädiatrie: Leibliche, seelische und geis¬tige Aspekte in Diagnostik und Beratung. Anthroposophisch-homöopathische Therapie. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft; 2007.
33.Institute of Medicine. Integrative medicine and the health of the public: a summary of the February 2009 summit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009.
34.Burkhardt R, Kienle G: Die Zulassung von Arneimitteln und der Widerruf von Zulassungen nach dem Arzneimittelgesetz von 1976; Stuttgart: Verlag Urachhaus; 1982.
35.Hauschka M. Zur künstlerischen Therapie Bd.II. Wesen und Aufgabe der Maltherapie. Nürnberg, Germany: Karl Ulrich & Co; 1991.
36.Mees-Christeller E. Künstlerische Therapie ausgewählter Krankheitsbilder. Merkurstab. 1995;3:261-269.
37.Steiner R. Curative eurythmy. (1921). Bristol, UK: Rudolf Steiner Press; 1983.
38.Kirchner-Bockholt M. Fundamental principles of curative eurythmy. London: Temple Lodge Press; 1977.
39.Ritchie J, Wilkinson J, Gantley M, et al. A model of integrated primary care: anthroposophic medicine January 2011: the seven-practice study. http://www.ivaa.info/anthroposophic-medicine/research-in-am/the-seven-practice-study/. Accessed October 15, 2013.
40.Hamre HJ, Fischer M, Heger M, et al. Anthroposophic vs conventional thera¬py of acute respiratory and ear infections: a prospective outcomes study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117(7-8):258-68.
41.Ziegler R. Mistletoe preparation Iscador: are there methodological concerns with respect to controlled clinical trials? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Mar;6(1):19-30.
42.Kienle GS, Glockmann A, Grugel R, et al. Klinische Forschung zur Anthroposophischen Medizin—Update eines Health Technology Assessment-Berichts und Status Quo. Forsch Komplementmed. 2011;18:269-82.
43.Hekal IA, Samer T, Ibrahim EI. Viscum Fraxini 2, as an adjuvant therapy after resection of superficial bladder cancer: prospective clinical randomized study. Presented at the 43rd Annual Congress of The Egyptian Urological Association in conjunction with The European Association of Urology November 10-14, 2008, Hurghada, Egypt. Abstract P8. 120. 2009.
44.Molassiotis A, Fernandez-Ortega P, Pud D, et al. Use of complementary and alterna-tive medicine in cancer patients: a European survey. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(4):655-63.
45.Fasching PA, Thiel F, Nicolaisen-Murmann K, et al. Association of comple¬mentary methods with quality of life and life satisfaction in patients with gynecologic and breast malignancies. Support Care Cancer. 2007;55(11):1277-84.
46.Kienle GS, Kiene H. Die Mistel in der Onkologie: Fakten und konzeptionelle Grundlagen. Stuttgart, NY: Schattauer Verlag; 2003.
47.Büssing A, editor. Mistletoe: the genus Viscum. Amsterdam: Hardwood Academic Publishers; 2000.
48.Orhan DD, Kupeli E, Yesilada E, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of flavonoids isolated from Viscum album ssp. album. Z Naturforsch C. 2006;61(1-2):26-30.
49.Winkler K, Leneweit G, Schubert R. Characterization of membrane vesicles in plant extracts. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005;45(2):57-65.
50.Jager S, Winkler K, Pfuller U, et al. Solubility studies of oleanolic acid and betulinic acid in aqueous solutions and plant extracts of Viscum album L. Planta Med. 2007;73(2):157-162.
51.Eggenschwiler J, von BL, Stritt B, et al. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cyto¬toxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectina-ta). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 May 10;7:14.
52.Büssing A, Schietzel M. Apoptosis-inducing properties of Viscum album L. extracts from different host trees, correlate with their content of toxic mis¬tletoe lectins. Anticancer Res. 1999;19(1A):23-8.
53.Elsässer-Beile U, Lusebrink S, Grussenmeyer U, et al. Comparison of the effects of various clinically applied mistletoe preparations on peripheral blood leukocytes. Arzneim Forsch /Drug Res. 1998;48(II)(12):1185-9.
54.Valentiner U, Pfüller U, Baum C, et al. The cytotoxic effect of mistletoe lec¬tins I, II and III on sensitive and multidrug resistant human colon cancer cell lines in vitro. Toxicology. 2002;171(2-3):187-99.
55.Siegle I, Fritz P, McClellan M, et al. Combined cytotoxic action of Viscum album agglutinin-1 and anticancer agents against human A549 lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4A):2687-91.
56.Bantel H, Engels IH, Voelter W, et al. Mistletoe lectin activates caspase-8/FLICE independently of death receptor signaling and enhances anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2083-90.
57.Mueller EA, Anderer FA. Synergistic action of a plant rhamnogalacturonan enhancing antitumor cytotoxicity of human natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cells: Chemical specificity of target cell recognition. Cancer Res. 1990;50:3646-51.
58.Zhu HG, Zollner TM, Klein-Franke A, et al. Enhancement of MHC-unrestricted cyto-toxic activity of human CD56+CD3- natural killer (NK) cells and CD+T cells by rhamnogalacturonan: target cell specificity and activity against NK-insensitive targets. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1994;(120):383-8.
59.Kienle GS, Kiene H. Influence of Viscum album L (European mistletoe) extracts on quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review of con¬trolled clinical studies. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9(2):142-57.
60.Kienle GS, Berrino F, Büssing A, et al. Mistletoe in cancer—a systematic review on controlled clinical trials. Eur J Med Res. 2003;8(3):109-19.
61.Kienle GS, Kiene H. Complementary cancer therapy: a systematic review of prospective clinical trials on anthroposophic mistletoe extracts. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12(3):103-19.
62.Tröger W, Galun D, Reif M, Schumann A, Stankovic N, Milicevic M. Viscum album [L.] extract therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer: a randomised clinical trial on overall survival. Eur J Cancer. 2013; In press.
63.Kienle GS, Glockmann A, Schink M, et al. Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecologic cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 11;28:79.
64.Mabed M, El-Helw L, Sharma S. Phase II study of viscum fraxini-2 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(1):65-9.
65.Matthes H, Buchwald D, Schad F, et al. Treatment of inoperable pancreatic carcinoma with combined intratumoral mistletoe therapy. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4 Suppl 2):433.
66.Orange M, Fonseca M, Lace A, et al. Durable tumour responses following pri¬mary high dose induction with mistletoe extracts: two case reports. Eur J Integr Med. 2010;2(2):63-9.
67.Orange M, Lace A, Fonseca M, et al. Durable regression of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma following fever-inducing mistletoe treatment—two case reports. Global Adv Health Med. 2012;1(1):16-23.
68.Werthmann P, Sträter G, Friesland H, et al. Durable response of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following high-dose perilesional injections of Viscum album extracts-—a case report. Phytomedicine. 2013;20(3-4):324-7.
69.Kienle GS, Grugel R, Kiene H. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in ani-mals and humans – systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11(1):72.
70.Hamre HJ, Becker-Witt C, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Anthroposophic therapies in chronic disease: the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcome Study (AMOS). Eur J Med Res. 2004;9(7):351-360.
71.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for children with chronic disease: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpa¬tient settings. BMC Pediatr 2009Jun 19;9:39.
72.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Eurythmy therapy in chronic disease: a four-year prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 2007 Apr 23;7:61.
73.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Anthroposophic art therapy in chronic disease: a four-year prospective cohort study. Explore NY. 2007;3(4):365-71.
74.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Rhythmical massage therapy in chronic disease: a 4-year prospective cohort study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(6):635-42.
75.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Anthroposophic medical therapy in chronic disease: a four-year prospective cohort study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007 Apr 23;7:10.
76.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, et al. Outcome of anthroposophic medi¬cation therapy in chronic disease: a 12-month prospective cohort study. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2009 Feb 6;2:25-37.
77.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity: a two-year prospective study in outpa¬tients. Int J Gen Med. 2010 Aug 30;3:239-53.
78.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for anxiety disorders: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings. Clin Med Insights: Psychiatry. 2009;2:17-31.
79.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for asthma: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings. J Asthma Allergy. 2009 Nov 24;2:111-28.
80.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Anthroposophic therapy for chronic depression: a four-year prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Dec 15;6:57.
81.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, et al. Anthroposophic vs conventional therapy for chronic low back pain: a prospective comparative study. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12(7):302-10.
82.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Long-term outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for chronic low back pain: A two-year follow-up analysis. J Pain Res. 2009 Jun 25;2:75-85.
83.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, et al. Anthroposophic therapy for migraine: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings. Open Neurol J. 2010;4:100-10.
84.Hamre HJ, Glockmann A, Tröger W, Kienle GS, Kiene H. Assessing the order of magnitude of outcomes in single-arm cohorts through systematic com¬parison with corresponding cohorts: an example from the AMOS study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:11.
85.Hamre HJ, Glockmann A, Kienle GS, Kiene H. Combined bias suppression in single-arm therapy studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14(5):923-9.
86.Heusser P, Braun SB, Ziegler R, et al. Palliative inpatient cancer treatment in an anthroposophic hospital: I. Treatment patterns and compliance with anthroposophic medicine. Forsch Komplementmed. 2006;13(2):94-100.
87.Heusser P, Berger Braun S, Bertschy M, et al. Palliative inpatient cancer treat¬ment in an anthroposophic hospital: II. Quality of life during and after sta¬tionary treatment, and subjective treatment benefits. Forsch Komplementmed 2006;13(3):156-66.
88.von Rohr E, Pampallona S, van Wegberg B, et al. Experiences in the realisa¬tion of a research project on anthroposophical medicine in patients with advanced cancer. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 2000;130(34):1173-84.
89.von Rohr E, Pampallona S, van Wegberg B, et al. Attitudes and beliefs towards disease and treatment in patients with advanced cancer using anthroposophical medicine. Onkologie 2000;23:558-563.
90.Carlsson M, Arman M, Backman M, Flatters U, Hatschek T, Hamrin E. Evaluation of quality of life/life satisfaction in women with breast cancer in complementary and conventional care. Acta Oncol. 2004;43(1):27-34.
91.Carlsson M, Arman M, Backman M, Flatters U, Hatschek T, Hamrin E. A five-year follow-up of quality of life in women with breast cancer in anthropo¬sophic and conventional care. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006;3(4):523-31.
92.Simon L. Ein anthroposophisches Therapiekonzept für entzündlich-rheu¬matische Erkrankungen. Ergebnisse einer zweijährigen Pilotstudie. Forsch Komplementmed. 1997;4:17-27.
93.Astrup C, Astrup Sv, Astrup S, et al. Die Behandlung von Gesichtsschmerzen mit homöopathischen Heilmitteln. Erfahrungsheilkunde. 1976;3:89-96.
94.Schäfer PM: Katamnestische Untersuchung zur Anorexia nervosa. In: Bissegger M, editor. Die Behandlung von Magersucht: ein integrativer Therapieansatz. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben; 1998:130-60.
95.Huber R, Lüdtke R, Klassen M, et al. Effects of a mistletoe preparation with defined lectin content on chronic hepatitis C: an individually controlled cohort study. Eur J Med Res. 2001;6(9):399-405.
96.Tusenius KJ, Spoek JM, Kramers CW. Iscador Qu for chronic hepatitis C: an exploratory study. Complement Ther Med. 2001;9(1):12-6.
97.Tusenius KJ, Spoek AM, van HJ. Exploratory study on the effects of treat¬ment with two mistletoe preparations on chronic hepatitis C. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55(12):749-53.
99.Huyke C, Laszczyk K, Scheffler A, et al. Behandlung aktinischer Keratose mit Birkenkorkenextrakt: Eine Pilotstudie. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2006;4(2):132-6.
99.Huyke C, Reuter J, Rodig M, et al. Treatment of actinic keratoses with a novel betulin-based oleogel. A prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008.
100.Ostermann T, Blaser G, Bertram M, Michalsen A, Matthiessen PF, Kraft K. Effects of rhythmic embrocation therapy with solum oil in chronic pain patients: a prospective observational study. Clin J Pain. 2008;24(3):237-43.
101.Baars EW, Gans S, Ellis EL. The effect of hepar magnesium on seasonal fatigue symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(4):395-402.
102.Guala A, Pastore G, Garipoli V, Agosti M, Vitali M, Bona G. The time of umbil¬ical cord separation in healthy full-term newborns: a controlled clinical trial of different cord practices. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162(5):350-1.
103.Janke S, Seidler A, Schmidt E. Schnellere Nabelheilung durch WecesinÒ Streupuder. Die Hebamme. 1997;10:115-7.
104.Majorek M, Tüchelmann T, Heusser P. Therapeutic eurythmy—movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2004 Feb;10(1):46-53.
105.Ulbricht M. Antipyretische Wirkung eines körperwarmen Einlaufes. Inaugural-Dissertation. Tübingen; 1991.
106.Gärtner C. Therapie der Arthrosen grosser Gelenke. Merkurstab. 1999;1:48-51.
107.Gärtner C. Der akute muskuläre Okzipitalschmerz. Therapiestudie mit lokalen Infil-trationen Gelsemium compositum. Merkurstab. 1999;4:244-9.
108.Krabbe AA, Olesen J. Ferrumkvarts som profylaktikum ved migræne. En dobbelt-blind undersøgelse. Ugeskr Laeger. 1980;142(8):516-8.
109.Jeffrey SLA, Belcher JC. Use of Arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002;8(2):66-8.
110.Pach D, Brinkhaus B, Roll S, et al. Efficacy of injections with Disci/Rhus Toxi-codendron Compositum for chronic low back pain—a randomized placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(11):e26166.
111.Huber R, Prestel U, Bloss I, Meyer U, Lüdtke R. Effectiveness of subcutaneous in-jections of a cartilage preparation in osteoarthritis of the knee—a random¬ized, placebo controlled phase II study. Complement Ther Med. 2010;18(3):113-8.
112.Sharp L, Finnilä K, Johansson H, Abrahamsson M, Hatschek T, Bergenmar M. No differences between Calendula cream and aqueous cream in the preven¬tion of acute radiation skin reactions—results from a randomised blinded trial. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013 Aug;17(4):429-35.
113.von Hagens C, Schiller P, Godbillon B, et al. Treating menopausal symptoms with a complex remedy or placebo: a randomized controlled trial. Climacteric 2012;15(4):358-67.
114.Esch BM, Marian F, Busato A, Huesser P. Patient satisfaction with primary care: an observational study comparing anthroposophic and conventional care. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6(1):74.
115.Koster EB, Ong RRS, Heybroek-Bellwinkel R, et al. CQ-Index Antroposofische Gezondheidszorg. Constructie en validering. Leiden: Lectoraat Antroposofische Gezondheidszorg; 2012.
116.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Tröger W, Willich SN, Kiene H. Use and safety of anthroposophic medications in chronic disease: a 2-year prospec¬tive analysis. Drug Saf. 2006;29(12):1173-89.
117.Baars EW, Adriaansen-Tennekes R, Eikmans KJ. Safety of homeopathic inject¬ables for subcutaneous administration: a documentation of the experience of prescribing practitioners. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(4):609-16.
118.Hamre HJ, Glockmann A, Fischer M, et al. Use and safety of anthroposophic medications for acute respiratory and ear infections: a prospective cohort study. Drug Target Insights. 2007;2:209-19.
119.Jeschke E, Ostermann T, Luke C, et al. Remedies containing Asteraceae extracts: a prospective observational study of prescribing patterns and adverse drug reactions in German primary care. Drug Saf. 2009;32(8):691-706.
120.Plangger N, Rist L, Zimmermann R, von Mandach U. Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than beta-agonist applica¬tion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;124(2):168-72.
121.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, et al. Health costs in patients treated for depression, in patients with depressive symptoms treated for another chronic disorder, and in non-depressed patients: a two-year prospective cohort study in anthroposophic outpatient settings. Eur J Health Econ. 2010;11(1):77-94.
122.Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study. BMC Health Services Research. 2006;6:65.
123.Studer HP, Busato A. Comparison of Swiss basic health insurance costs of complementary and conventional medicine. Forsch Komplementmed. 2011;18(6):315-20.
124.Studer HP, Busato A. Development of costs for complementary medicine after provisional inclusion into the Swiss basic health insurance. Forsch Komplementmed. 2011;18(1):15-23.
125.Kooreman P, Baars EW. Patients whose GP knows complementary medicine tend to have lower costs and live longer. Eur J Health Econ. 2012 Dec;13(6):769-76.
126.Kienle GS. Why medical case reports? Global Adv Health Med. 2012;1(1):8-9.
127.Kienle GS, Kiene H. Clinical judgement and the medical profession. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17(4):621-7.
128.Kiene H, Schön-Angerer T. Single-case causality assessment as a basis for clinical judgment. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998;4(1):41-47.
129.Kiene H. Komplementäre Methodenlehre der klinischen Forschung. Cognition-based Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2001.
130.Kiene H, Hamre HJ, Kienle GS. In support of clinical case reports: a system of causality assessment. Global Adv Health Med. 2013;2(2):28-39.
131.Wode K, Schneider T, Lundberg I, Kienle GS. Mistletoe treatment in cancer-related fatigue: a case report. Cases J. 2009 Jan 22;2(1):77.
132.Kienle GS, Meusers M, Quecke B, Hilgard D. Patient-centered diabetes care in children: an integrated, individualized, systems-oriented, and Multidisciplinary Approach. Global Adv Health Med 2013;2(2):12-19.
Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology at the University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany (Drs Kienle, Kiene, and Hamre); European Scientific Cooperative on Anthroposophic Medicinal Products (ESCAMP), Freiburg, Germany (Drs Kienle, Baars, and Hamre); Clinic for Family and Complementary Medicine, Langnau im Emmental, Switzerland (Dr Albonico); University of Applied Sciences Leiden, The Netherlands; Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, The Netherlands (Dr Baars); Department of Gynecology, Plusterveys, Nastola Medical Center, Finland (Dr Zimmermann).
Gunver Kienle, Dr med
Global Adv Health Med. 2013;2(6):20-31. DOI: 10.7453/gahmj.2012.087
Anthroposophic medicine, integrative, patient-centered, holistic
The authors completed the ICMJE Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest and had no conflicts related to this work to disclose.